Answered By: ESC Sara
Last Updated: Jul 28, 2023     Views: 211


  • Every time you quote someone else directly
  • Every time you summarize or paraphrase someone else's thoughts in your own words*
  • Every time you use a fact that's not common knowledge**
  • Every time you use an idea, theory, hypothesis, or opinion, even if you use your own words
  • Every time you use an image, graph, chart, video, audio clip, or interactive element
  • When in doubt, cite

* When you summarize a work (or a chunk of a work) you cannot just cite once at the end of your summary. Every discrete fact and idea needs to be cited. Your in-text citations are meant to help your reader go directly to the place where you found that exact piece of information.

** What's common knowledge? Something that's so widely known that nobody really knows or cares where the information came from, like "Chlorophyll is green" or "Monet was an Impressionist painter." 




Related Topics

    Contact Us

    Please give an e-mail address so we know where to send your answer. We will not share it.
    Your Question
    Your Info
    Fields marked with * are required.

    Or call us 800-847-3000, ext. 2222

    Normal Hours

    • Sun-Thu: 11 a.m. - 7 p.m.

    Summer Hours

    July - August:

    • Mon-Thu: 12 p.m. - 5 p.m.

    Please note: Ask a Librarian is closed during the Spring, Summer and Winter breaks.  Academic librarians from the Ask Us 24/7 consortium are available to help any time via chat when Ask a Librarian is closed.